Sussex Police said the images were captured in the area early on Saturday morning (June 8) when the woman was seen running from the gardens following the attack.
Detective Inspector Duncan Elliott said: "We believe that the man in pictures may have important information and we would ask him or anyone who recognises him to contact us.
"This was a vicious attack that left the woman with a number of injuries that required hospital treatment. She is now receiving specialist support.
"We are also appealing for anyone who may have been in the area at the time or who may have a home or business with CCTV covering the area around the Pavilion. Similarly, anyone driving with a dashcam operating might well have captured something that could be of interest to us. Please report online or call 101 quoting Operation Cobalt."
Sussex Police said the woman, who is in her early 20s, was seen running from the gardens in a distressed state at 5.45am, prompting a call from a concerned member of the public.
She told police that she had been raped by a man in the area of the Indian Gate shortly beforehand.