He led Notts to a first innings total of 570-7 when they declared before tea and Sussex’s stuttering reply is in all sorts of trouble at 157-4 at the end of day two.
Sussex’s hopes for an early wicket were soon extinguished as, after a 30-minute rain/light delayed start, it was clear that Taylor and captain Chris Read would shape the LV=County Championship Division 1 clash.
Notts resumed on 358-5 in conditions of stark contrast to Sunday glorious sunshine, but with Taylor unbeaten on 163 and Read still in on 54 having shared an unbroken sixth-wicket partnership of 172, they would be the ones to shine brightly.
In a damning day for the Sussex bowlers, 25-year-old Taylor secured his place in the Notts’ record books as he hit the sixth double hundred of his career, hit a ground-highest score and was just 21 runs off Nottinghamshire’s all-time highest score.
He was unbeaten on 225 at the end of the morning session with Read on 84 and Notts sitting pretty with 455-5.
The pair continued to bat into the afternoon and Read soon had back-to-back championship hundreds and Taylor a career First Class career best.
Eventually, Read succumbed as he was caught behind off Matt Hobden for 121 to end a partnership worth 365 - the highest ever against Sussex and a sixth-wicket best for Notts.
At 551-6, a far cry for their 30-3 on the opening day, Brett Hutton was the new man at the crease and he raced along to 12 before Taylor’s fun was over.
He was caught by Chris Nash on 291 off the bowling of Steve Magoffin (1-53) to led Notts to declare on 570-7 half an hour before tea.
Ollie Robinson finished with figures of 4-112 and Hobden 2-143.
In reply, Ed Joyce and Luke Wells looked to be continuing where Notts left off as the pair sent a six each to the tennis courts and a number of fours around the ground.
After tea, however, they tumbled in quick succession, both caught for 40 off the bowling of Harry Gurney.
Matt Machan and Chris Nash were they new men at the crease and the homegrown Nash was caught behind to Gary Keedy for 11 and Machan soon followed, with Gurney again prospering from a catch to cap a number of questionable shots by the Sussex line-up.
That left them at 123-4 with four falling for just 44 runs between them as Luke Wright and Craig Cachopa took to the middle.
They batted more cautiously and Wright (21) and Cachopa (13) as bad light was called with eight overs left to play at 157-4.