The seamer’s latest accolade follows on from a winter with the England Test squad in Sri Lanka and India, after a first call-up by the national side last summer.
The 27-year-old was awarded his county cap during the 2019 campaign.
Robinson said: “I’m immensely proud to be named vice-captain.
"It’s a very exciting time at Sussex with a lot of talented youth coming through, and I’m looking forward to working alongside Ben (Brown) and the new coaching team and taking this team forward.”
Championship and one-day head coach, Ian Salisbury, added: “Ollie Robinson has only impressed me since I came back to the club.
"It’s not just his bowling that has made a mark, it’s his leadership skills, which have been amazing in and out of the changing room.
"Combine that with a cricket brain that is second-to-none, and that’s why we want him to be vice-captain of the Championship side.
“Ollie follows in the footsteps of another seam-bowling, Sussex vice-captain in James Kirtley, and having the two of them guiding our crop of young seamers means they couldn’t be in better hands.
"Hopefully this is the start of a massive summer for Ollie in which he’ll go on to be the first Sussex cricketer of mine and James’ era to make his debut for England.”
Club captain, Ben Brown said: “I’m extremely proud of Ollie. Over the last few years he has lead the group extremely well and is a huge presence in our dressing room.
"He has come a long way on and off the field throughout his time at Sussex.
"Hopefully the vice captaincy is the start of a great summer for Ollie and one in which he will play for England and continue to dominate for Sussex.”
Since making his first Championship appearance for Sussex in 2015, the 27-year-old has taken 221 wickets at an average of 22.06, including 12 five-wicket hauls.
No seamer has taken more than Ollie’s 137 wickets over the course of the previous two, full Championship seasons.
His 14 wickets against Middlesex at The 1st Central County Ground in 2019 provided him with the best match figures for a Sussex bowler in 55 years.