The 29-year-old joins on an initial one-year contract with an additional one-year option.
Payne spent the last three years at National League outfit Eastleigh where he made 83 league appearances across three seasons for the Spitfires.
The midfielder spent two years with Ebbsfleet United after a successful 2016-17 promotion season with Blackpool, where he starred in a 2-1 League Two play-off final win over Exeter City.
Payne also enjoyed one season with Leyton Orient in 2015-16 after four years at Peterborough United.
At the Posh, Payne made 14 appearances in the Championship in the 2012-13 season, before enjoying two full campaigns in League One where he featured 74 times across the 2013-14 and 2014-15 seasons, scoring five goals.
The midfielder also appeared 101 times for Gillingham from 2008 to 2013, scoring five times.
Payne said: “I’m happy to be here. It all happened quite quickly but I’ve known the gaffer (John Yems) for years which made it easy for the deal to cross the line.”
Manager John Yems added: “I knew Jack from the Gillingham days, (and) I’ve closely watched his career over the years and he’s a different kind of player that will compliment the team well for next season.”
Chief executive Erdem Konyar said: “Jack brings a wealth of experience. We believe he will play an important role for us in the upcoming season.”